Syunik province is located at the south-eastern end of Armenia. It is predominantly a mountainous region, mosaic covered with deciduous forests, steppes, and semi-deserts. The Zangezur Mountains occupy most of the territories of Syunik bordering the area from the west and having the Mount Kaputjugh with a height of 3905 meters and Mount Gazanasar with a height of 3829 meters as the highest peaks of the province. The other mountain ridges include Bargushat and Meghri.
Major water basins which flow through the province include the rivers of Vorotan, Voghji, Sisian, Meghri and Vachagan, while the Araks river borders the territory from the south separating Armenia from Iran.
The climate here strongly varies. Summer temperature can reach up to 40 °C, although the average temperature is around 22 °C. In winter it may reach down to -12.5 °C.
Significant portion of Syunik are included in protected areas, which recently have been transferred from separate National Park, Reserve, and Sanctuary into a single Zangezur Biosphere Complex. The main triggers here are Caucasian Leopard, Armenian Mouflon, as well as number of birds of prey, and other wildlife.