Gegharkunik Province is situated at the east of Armenia, surrounding the Lake Sevan. It has a mountainous landscape being dominated by the Gegham mountains from the west, the mountains of Vardenis from the south, Sevan mountains from the east, Miapor mountains from the northeast and the Kenats mountains from the north. The height of the mountains ranges between 2500 and 3500 meters, and the highest point of the province is mount Azhdahak of the Gegham mountains with a height of 3597 meters at the western part of the range. Lake Sevan occupies the central part of the province, lying at a height of 1900 meters above sea level and covering an area of 1260 km². (around 23.5% of the area of the province). Gegharkunik is separated from Vayots Dzor by the 82 kilometers-long Vardenis Mountains, where the highest point is Mount Vardenis at 3522 meters.
The climate of Gegharkunik is cold and snowy in winter, while the summer is characterized with warm and humid climate. The annual precipitation level ranges between 500 and 600 mm at below 2000 meters, while it may reach up to 1000 mm in the mountainous areas.
Lake Sevan is the largest body of sweet water in Armenia and Southern Caucasus. With a volume of around 32.92 billion m³ of water, Sevan is of a major environmental importance for the entire region. There are 28 rivers which flow into the Lake, among those the Getik, Gavaraget and Masrik are the main ones.