The province is located at the southeast of the Ararat plain, surrounded by the Yeranos mountains from the north, the mountains of Gegham, Dahnak and Mzhkatar from the east, Urts mountains from the south and the Araks river from the west. The mountains of Yerakh are located at the center of the province. Approximately, 30% of the territory is plain, while the rest is dominated by mountains.
The highest point of Ararat province is the Spitakasar peak of Gegham mountains with a height of 3560 meters. The lowest point is 801 meters at the Araks valley. Araks, Hrazdan, Azat, and Vedi are the four major rivers which flow through the province. The climate in the province is highly diversified. It ranges between extremely arid conditions at the lower plains and cold snowy climate at the higher elevations.
The rigorous terrain of Khosrov Forest located at the northeast of the province became a stronghold for the endangered Caucasian leopards in Armenia: after long-term absence, the species is again documented in the area since 2018. Also the area is aimed at protection of the only population of Cinereous Vulture in the country, along with other wildlife.