Aragatsotn Province occupies the northwestern part of Armenia and at its northern part is dominated by the Aragats mountain range, and at the west is bordered by the Akhurian River, which west separates Aragatsotn from Turkey. At the northeast and the east, it approximates the mountains of Pambak and Tsaghkunyats respectively. The mountains of Arteni dominate the northeastern and the central eastern parts of the province. The tiny Akhurian valley occupies the eastern edge of Aragatsotn. In the south and the southeast, Aragatsotn occupies the northwestern parts of the Ararat plain.
The altitude of the province ranges between 950 and 4090 meters above sea level, where the Mount Aragats is the highest peak of Aragatsotn and the Republic of Armenia.
Besides the Akhurian river, the rivers of Kasagh, Gegharot and Amberd are the main water resources in the province. Mountainous lakes include Lake Kari, Lessing, Amberd, Tagavor and Kuraghbyur, all are found on Mount Aragats.
The climate of Aragatsotn is deeply diversified due to the wide range of altitudes of the region. The annual precipitation level ranges between 400 mm at the lower areas and 1,000 mm at the mountainous territories.
The only protected area of the province is the Aragats Alpine Sanctuary, which is aimed at community of alpine plants, and also becomes a refuge for the high-mountain specialist birds, such as White-winged Snowfinch, Crimson-winged Finch, and others.