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Lanner Falcon

Falco biarmicus

CONSERVATION STATUS.

The Lanner Falcon is known from Armenia by two breeding pairs, which nevertheless breed in the country rather stable. Taking into consideration the known habitat requirements of the species, it is possible that other pairs just has not been discovered yet.

HABITAT.

Highly variable, from dry, flat, open desert to wet, often forested mountains up to 5000 m elevation. Usually with open or lightly wooded hunting areas nearby and often near cliffs or rocky gorges. Often overlaps with Peregrine Falcon, especially in arid areas. In Armenia inhabits flat semi-desert areas with existence of high cliffs with niches and grotto.

FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

Hunts mainly by fast aerial pursuit from a stoop or horizontal chase, often around a waterhole and sometimes with a pair combining in attack; also hawks flying insects in leisurely fashion, pounces from a perch on terrestrial prey, or raids birds’ nests. In other parts of the world, up to 20 birds may gather at prey concentrations. Also learns to use human hunters as beaters, obtains some prey by piracy from other raptors, and even takes some carrion.

 

EGGS.

Usually 3–4 eggs (2–5), rarely double-brooded; incubation takes 32 days; the chicks have white first and second down, and stay in the nest 35–47 days. Female assists in hunting for chicks late in nestling period.

YOUNG.

After fledgling the young stay with parents next 1–3 months. In that period they also been fed by both parents.

DIET.

Mainly Lanner hunts for small birds, especially quails, columbids, and starlings, also the diet is augmented by rodents, bats, lizards, and insects.

NESTING.

Although for other parts of the world they nest in old structures of corvids, other raptors or herons, in trees or on electricity pylons, as well as scrapes on the ground, quarries or buildings, in Armenia they only use small grotto on cliffs.

MIGRATION.

Lanners are known to be resident in areas of more stable climate, but in Armenia they definitely leave the nesting areas for winter.

DISTRIBUTION.

Peregrine is a cosmopolitan species and occupies almost entire world. The subspecies brookei is distributed in Mediterranean and Caucasus regions.

CONSERVATION MEASURES.

The species is listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Least Concern, and is evaluated for Armenian Red Book as Data Deficient (2010). Also the species is included in Appendix II of CITES. Both local pairs of the species occupy the territories outside existing State Reserves, but included in Emerald Sites network. The most important measure is change of the status of their known distribution range into protected, and then begin development of management plan for those sites, and conduction of further study on their distribution, abundance, and possible or current threats in Armenia.

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