CONSERVATION STATUS.

Black Francolin in Armenia is rather stable, partly because it is mostly breeding at the border zone and thus is well protected by guards. Its narrow range makes it vulnerable though, and urbanization doesn’t allow the species go further up along the rivers.

HABITAT.

The primary habitat of Black Francolin in Armenia are riparian forests of south-eastern region, which in some small areas have been transformed under orchards. The species sometimes penetrates into orchards along Meghri River, however it appears that the human disturbance here is too high and its breeding in these areas is not stable.

FEEDING BEHAVIOR.

The species feeds both on the ground and on the trees and bushes. One the ground it often picks the seeds of the plants, fallen berries and fruits, as well as catches insects. Black Francolin often delves the ground for plant remains as well for catching beetles hidden under leaves. From trees and bushes it mainly picks up the fruits and berries.

 

EGGS.

6-11. Pale –yellowish-olive without spots or with scarce white spots. Incubation takes 18–21 days and is done by female alone (although male remains close by and helps tend young); downy chicks are fully grown at about 35 days but capable of short flights at 9–22 days.

YOUNG.

The fledglings stay with parents through their first winter and only then disperse out.

DIET.

The food contains on plant, such as seeds of grasses, weeds and cereal crops, shoots, leaves, tubers, berries and figs; also a range of insects and their larvae, especially Coleoptera and Orthoptera. .

NESTING.

The nest of Black Francolin is a shallow hollow or depression, sometimes with a few scraps of plant debris, made by female, concealed amongst vegetation.

MIGRATION.

The species is residential and in winter is observed at the same areas sometimes making small flocks.

DISTRIBUTION.

The species breeds in Southern Europe, Middle East and Central Asia, also it was introduced in North America  as a game bird. Armenia is inhabited by subspecies francolinus, its native range is Turkey, Cyprus, Transcaucasia, Iran, and further south through Syria to Israel.

CONSERVATION MEASURES.

The species is evaluated as Least Concern in IUCN Red List, and as Data Deficient for the Red Book of Animals of Armenia (2010). The species is included in CITES and Bern Convention. The range of the species is not covered by National Protected Areas. Since the last assessment there are some investigations on its population size and habitat, however more studies have to be done, in particular, regarding development of necessary conditions for its further distribution along riparian zone higher up, and not just along the border.